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Immunization Disparities in Older Americans

Determinants and Future Research Needs

August 2006
American Journal of Preventive MedicineVol. 31, Issue 2
Ann S. O'Malley, Christopher B Forrest

Marked racial disparities persist in influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations among Medicare beneficiaries. This study sought to assess the contribution that patient, physician, health system, and area-level characteristics make to these racial disparities in immunization. Despite similar insurance coverage and presence of a usual physician, black beneficiaries were significantly less likely than their white counterparts to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. The implications for future research are discussed, including the need for system-based interventions that make the offering and discussion of vaccination routine.

This article is available at the American Journal of Preventive Medicine Web site by clicking here. (Subscription required.)


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The Center for Studying Health System Change Ceased operation on Dec. 31, 2013.